Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)


Written by : Dr.M.D.Mazumdar, MD

Sexually transmitted diseases (STD), also known as a sexually transmitted infection (STI), or venereal diseases (VD), are infections which spread from one person to another by sexual intercourse. The infection can be by vaginal or anal or oral route. Even diseases spread by kissing come under sexually transmitted diseases.

Some STDs can remain in a person ('carriers') without causing any of the signs and symptoms of the condition. But the disease can still spread to another person from the carrier.

The most commonly transmitted STDs are HPV and Genital herpes. Other STDs are Chlamydia Trachomatis, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV (AIDS) and trichomoniasis. Chancroid is less common nowadays.

Different Types of STDs

  • Syphilis
  • Syphilis is caused by a parasite (a spirochaete) called Treponema Pallidum (Spirochaeta Pallida). It can be spread by vaginal, oral and anal route. It is usually acquired by direct contact with another person who has an open sore or ulcer. This STD can be easily treated and cured if diagnosed in its early stages. But it can progress and affect the nervous system and brain leading to dementia and even death if neglected. Read more...

  • Genital herpes
  • Genital Herpes is caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus, usually the HSV 2. It spreads easily and is one of the most commonly occurring STDs. Symptoms show up in 2-4 weeks after exposure to the virus. Once it enters the body, it remains for a lifetime causing flare-ups from time to time. Read more...

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  • Genital Warts
  • Genital Warts are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). The warts may appear in the skin of the penis, vulva, anus, vaginal lining, cervix and rectum. In women it causes 95% of all cervical cancers. Symptoms show up 1-8 months after having sex. Read more...

  • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
  • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a deadly disease caused by infection with a retrovirus, the Human Immunovirus (HIV). The virus causes severe damage to the immune system which leaves the person prone to devleop various infections which can be fatal. There are 4 stages of development of AIDS. Read more...

  • Gonorrhoea
  • Gonorrhea (once known as the clap) is a sexually transmitted disease that can infect the urethra, cervix, rectum, anus and throat. Symptoms of gonorrhea usually appear between 1 and 14 days after exposure. It is caused by a bacteria called N. gonorrhoeae. Symptoms include a burning sensation when urinating and a white/yellow discharge from the penis or vagina. Read more...

  • Chlamydia
  • Chlamydia is casued by an organism called Chlamydia Trachomatis. it is also called Lymphogranuloma venereum. It is mostly seen in tropical countries and affects men more than women. It is usually, but not always, spread by sexual contact. Symptoms show up 7-21 days after having sex. Read more...

  • Trichomoniasis
  • Trichomonas Vaginitis also known as 'Trich', is caused by a parasite called the Trichomonas Vaginalis. The organism can be found both in the male prostate, prepuce of the penis and urethra as well as in the vagina of the female. The male partner is usually symptom free but it causes intense itching and a greenish yellow vaginal discharge in the female. Read more...

  • Chancroid
  • Chancroid is caused by a type of bacteria called Haemophilus ducreyi. It spreads easily and is usually associated in people with AIDS. It casues painful ulcers . vaginal and vulva swelling and enlarged and matted lymph nodes in the groin. Read more...

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