Vaginal Discharge in Pregnancy
Written by Dr.M.D.Mazumdar, MD
Sometimes, you may find a little thick mucus sticking to your panties. Or the discharge may be so much as to make your panties wet and you you may need to use vaginal pads for protection.
Typical vaginal discharge is thin, clear, or milky white, as well as mild smelling. It helps to prevent any infections from travelling up from the vagina to the womb.
The high level of estrogen necessary to maintain pregnancy stimulates the glands in the cervix. These respond by producing more mucous.
Vaginal secretions may be safely ignored unless there are certain signs of abnormalities. Look at your secretions carefully - What colour are they? White or creamy? Or are they brown, red, greenish or blackish? The color of the vaginal discharge is an important indicator of infection.
If you notice any of these conditions, visit your gynecologist for a checkup. You may be suffering from infections that can affect your baby. Or if your discharge is dark brown, red or blackish, there may even be blood mixed with your discharge.
Normal vaginal Discharge - White or Creamy
A white or creamy discharge is normal throughout pregnancy if there is no additional symptoms like itching or swelling or a foul odor. If it is excessive, you can use pads for protection. If addiitonal symptoms are present , it may be due to vaginal infections which need to be treated.
The vaginal discharge becomes more profuse and thin, almost watery, towards the end of pregnancy .
Dark Brown / Red vaginal Discharge in Pregnancy
A reddish or brownish colour usually mean the presence of blood in the discharge and indicates bleeding somewhere in the reproductive tract. A red colour points to fresh blood while a brown colour means old denatured blood.
The causes of bleeding in pregnancy is different in early pregnancy and in late pregnancy
A. Bleeding in Early Pregnancy
- Abortion: In early pregnancy, the commonest cause is impending abortion. Most abortions start with the leaking of blood from the uterus. An ultrasonography will tell your doctor if your baby is all right. Immediate treatment may even keep your pregnancy safe and sound.
- Cervical Erosion: Cervical Erosion or Entropion occurs at the mouth of the cervix due to changes in the cervical cells in response to the high estrogen level in the blood. It is a harmless condition and generally clears up spontaneously within 3 months after childbirth. The pregnancy is not affected.
- Cervical Polyp: A cervical polyp is a small benign growth at the mouth of the cervix. It is harmless but can sometimes bleed in pregnancy.
- Cervical Varicosity: The cervix can develop varicose veins due to engorgement of the veins at its mouth. Engorgement occurs due to enlargement of the veins during pregnancy.
B, Bleeding in Late Pregnancy
In late pregnancy, there are three main causes of bleeding.
- Placenta praevia : In placenta previa, the placenta is positioned abnormally near the opening of your uterus. As the uterus enlarges in size, bleeding can occur from the placental base.
- Placental Abruption : Placental Abruption is a condition in which there may be sudden bleeding at the base of the placenta where it is fixed to the uterine wall. It is more common if you have high blood pressure.
- Labour : Most labour pains start with mild bleeding from the cervix (mouth of the uterus). Initially there may be only a brownish discharge, but as labour proceeds the color becomes reddish and fresh bleeding mixed with mucus can occur.
- Cervical polyp, Cervical Erosion : Bleeding can also occur from cervical erosion or polyps but are somewhat uncommon in later pregnancy.
Vaginal Discharge with Itching in Pregnancy
Vaginal discharge with itching is caused by infections like yeast ( candidiasis) or by a sexually transmitted disease called trichomoniasis.
- Trichomonas vaginalis: The trichomonas vaginalis organism can be identified in as many as 20 % of all pregnant women. But it is usually dormant in most cases. Infections causing the typical symptoms of itching, irritation and foamy discharge is comparatively less during pregnancy. It is diagnosed by examining fresh vaginal secretions under a microscope. The organism shows up as a tiny pear-shaped body with a tail and active movements.
It is believed that acute trichomonas infections can cause premature labour or premature rupture of membranes, but this belief has not been confirmed.
Treatment: Treatment of this infection is by metronidazole tablets. But metronidazole given orally in the first trimester of pregnancy can cause fetal congenital abnormalities.
So, it is better to take vaginal tablets of metronidazole as they are not much absorbed through this route and acts directly on the organisms.
- Yeast Infection: Candida also called vaginal yeast can be cultured in about 25% of all pregnant women. It is a very common infection and needs to be treated with edicines like miconazole vaginal cream 2%.
Grey Vaginal Discharge :It is commonly accompanied by a fishy or musty smell and is caused by a condition known as Bacterial vaginosis. It can be treated by vaginal suppositories.
Dirty DischargeOccasionally if the genitals are not kept clean, the discharge may be stained with a light brown colour. This can be differentiated from bleeding in that this discharge smells dirty and goes away after the genitals are washed thoroughly.
How to Maintain Vaginal health in Pregnancy:
- Avoiding douching.
- Avoid using unscented personal care products,including unscented toilet paper and soaps.
- Wiping the genital region from front to back after passing urine or stool.
- Drying the genitals thoroughly after showering or swimming.
- Wearing cotton panties.
- Avoiding tight clothes like jeans and nylon pantyhose
- Eating a healthy, balanced diet, especially probiotics.
- Breastfeeding after Childbirth.
- Second trimester of Pregnancy - Symptoms and management .
- HIV and AIDS - Symptoms and Diagnosis .
- Constipation in Pregnancy.